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2016年8月

2016年8月 4日 (木)

単語中心の英語のお勉強(4)

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Doctors

Session4

  1. an internist(内科医) = to find out what ails you and why, gives you a thorough physical examination(X ray, blood chemistry《血液化学》, urinalysis《検尿》, cardiogram《心電図》, etc.)
  2. a gynecologist(婦人科医) = treats the female reproductive(生殖の) and sexual organs
  3. an obstetrician(産科医) = delivers babies and takes care of the mother during and immediately after the period of her pregnancy
  4. a pediatrician(小児科医) = limits his practice to youngsters, gives them the series of inoculations(予防接種)
  5. a dermatologist(皮膚科医) = treats all skin diseases
  6. an ophthalmologist(眼科医) = treats disorders of vision(myopia《近視》, astigmatism《乱視》, cataracts《白内障》, glaucoma《緑内障》, etc.), prescribe glasses
  7. an orthopedist(整形外科医) = deals with the skeletal structure of the body, treating bone fractures(骨折), slipped discs(椎間板ヘルニア), clubfoot(内反尖足◆足の底が内側を向く先天異常), curvature of the spine(脊柱湾曲), dislocations of the hip(股関節脱臼), etc.
  8. a cardiologist(心臓専門医) = treats diseases of the heart and circulatory system(循環系)
  9. a neurologist(神経科医) = treats disorders of the brain, spinal cord(脊髄), and the rest of the nervous system
  10. a psychiatrist(精神科医) = attempts to alleviate(軽減する) mental and emotional disturbances by means of various techniques, occasionally drugs or electroshock, more often private or group psychotherapy(心理療法)

Session5

ORIGINS AND RELATED WORDS

1.inside you

internus(Latin)( = inside)
《例》internist(内科医), internal(adj.)(内部の、体内の)
cf. intern = a medical graduate serving an apprenticeship(研修を積む) inside a hospital

2.doctors for women

gynecologist = gyne(Greek)(=woman)+logos(=science)
gynecology = the science of women
gynecological(adj.)

obstetrician(産科医) = derives from Latin obstetrix(=midwife《助産師》:its source in a Latin verb meaning "to stand")(midwives stand in front of the woman in labor to aid in the delivery of the infant)
the suffix -ician = expert(専門家)
obstetrics
(産科), obstetric or obstetrical(adj.)

3.children

pediatrician(小児科医) = paidos(Greek)(=child)+iatreia(=medical healing)+-ician(=expert)
pediatrics = the medical healing of a child
pediatric(adj.)

cf. pedestal(〔柱・像などを立たせるための〕台、基礎・根拠), pedal(ペダル), pedestrian(歩行者) : pedis(Latin)(=foot)

pedagogy = paidos(=child)+agogos(=leading) = the leading of children = the principles and methods of teaching(教育学・教授法)
pedagogical(adj.)

pedagogue(狭量な教育者、〈軽蔑的〉学者ぶる人) = narrow-minded, strait-laced(お堅い), old-fashioned(〔人の考えや行動などが〕旧態依然とした), dogmatic(独善的な) teacher

demagogue(民衆扇動家) = agogos(=leading)+demos(=people)≒one who attempts to mislead the people; once elected, use political power to further their own personal ambitions or fortunes
demagoguery(民衆[大衆]扇動)
demagogic(adj.)(デマの、扇動的な)  

◎pedagogueとdemagogueは共に、元の意味よりもマイナスの意味を持つようになってしまった。

4.skin deep

dermatologist : derma(Greek)(=skin)
dermatology(皮膚科学)
dermatological(adj.)

hypodermic(皮下注射) = needle penetrates under(=hypos, Greek) the skin(=derma)

epidermis(表皮、上皮◆真皮dermisを覆っている外側の層) = the outermost layer of skin

taxidermist(剥製師) = prepares(整える), stuffs(詰め物をする), and mounts(標本にする、はく製にする) the skins of animals
taxidermy(剥製術)

pachyderm(厚皮動物) = an animal with an unusually thick skin, like an elephant, hippopotamus(カバ), or rhinoceros(サイ)

dermatitis(皮膚炎) = skin inflammation, irritation, or infection

5. the eyes have it

ophthalmologist(眼科医) = ophthalmos(Greek)(=eye)+logos(=science or study)
ophthalmology(眼科、眼科学)
ophthalmological(adj.)

cf. oculist(〈古〉眼科医) = oculus(Latin)(=eye)
1. ocular(adj.)(目の[に関する・のような])
2. monocle(単眼鏡、片眼鏡) = a lens for one(monos) eye
3. binoculars(双眼鏡) = field glasses that increase the range of two(bi-) eyes
4. inoculate(予防接種をする) = an "eye" or hole is made in your skin, through which serum(血清) is injected

optometrist(検眼医、検眼士◆眼の検査をして、メガネやコンタクトレンズの処方箋を出すが眼の薬の処方、手術などはできない。それらができるのは、Ophthalmologist) = opsis, optikos(Greek)(=sight, vision)+metron(=measurement = one who measures vision
optometry(検眼)
optometric(adj.) optometrical(adj.)

optician(眼鏡技師◆眼科医や検眼医の処方により眼鏡やコンタクトレンズの調整をするが眼の検査などはできない) =  opsis, optikos(Greek)(=sight, vision)+-ician(=expert)
optics(光学)
optical(adj.)

REVIEW

①prefix, root, suffix ②meaning ③examples

  • ①internus ②inside ③internist, internal
  • ①gyne ②woman ③gynecologist, gynecology
  • ①obstetrix ②midwife ③obstetrician, obstetrics
  • ①paidos ②child ③pediatrician, pediatrics
  • ①pedis ②foot ③pedal, pedestrian
  • ①agogos ②leading, leader ③pedagogy, pedagogue
  • ①demos ②people ③demagoguery, demagogue 
  • ①derma ②skin ③dermatologist, dermatology
  • ①hypos ②under ③hypodermic
  • ①ophthalmos ②eye ③ophthalmologist, ophthalmology
  • ①oculus ②eye ③oculist, ocular
  • ①monos ②one ③monocle
  • ①bi- ②two ③binoculars
  • ①-ician ②expert ③optician
  • ①opsis, optikos ②vision, sight ③optometrist
  • ①metron ②measurement ③optometry

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