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2016年7月24日 (日)

単語中心の英語のお勉強(3)

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Session3

ORIGINS AND RELATED WORDS

1.depends how you turn

verto(Latin verb) = to turn

If your thoughts are constantly turned inward (intro-), you are an introvert; outward (extro-), an extrovert; in both directions (ambi-), an ambivert.

ambidextrous * = able to use both hands with equal skill
 
ambidexterity (n.)(skill in the use of both hands)

dexterous *= skillful
 
dexterity (n.) = skill

二つの * はスペルに注意!

dexter (Latin) = right hand (traditionally the more skillful one)

left-handed = awkward (不器用な、ぎこちない)

sinister (Latin) = left hand
sinister (English) = threatening, evil, dangerous (邪悪な、悪意のある、腹黒い), frightening(ぞっとするような、恐ろしい)

gauche (French) = left hand
gauche (English) = clumsy(不器用な、ぎこちない), awkward(ぶざまな), generally social rather than physical
cf. gauche remark = tactless remark(機転の利かない発言)
  gauche offer of sympathy = so bumbling as to be embarrassing (恥ずかしいほど間抜けな)
     gaucherie (n.)

droit (French) = right hand 

adroit (English) ≒ skillful ≒ dexterous
=especially in the mental facilities; quick-witted, can get out of difficult spots cleverly, can handle situations ingeniously(機敏な、器用な、如才ない、気の利いた)
     adroitness (n.)(skill, cleverness)

2. love, hate, and marriage

misein(Greek) = to hate

misanthrope(人間嫌いの人)(who hates mankind)
anthropos(Greek) = mankind
cf.anthropology = the study of the development of the human race(人類学)
   
philanthropist = one who loves mankind and shows such love by making substantial financial contributions to charitable organizations or by donating time and energy to helping those in need(博愛主義者、慈善家)

misogynist女嫌いの人)(who hates women)
gyne(Greek) = woman
cf.
gynecologist = the medical specialist who treats female disorders, women's doctor(婦人科医)

misogamist(結婚嫌いの人)(who hates marriage):misogamy(n.)(結婚嫌い)(hatred of marriage), misogamous(adj.)
gamos
(Greek) = marriage
cf.monogamy = the custom of only one marriage at a time(
一夫一婦制)
     monos = one
   
bigamy = two marriage, illegal plurality of marriages, the unlawful act of contracting another marriage without divorcing one's current legal spouse(重婚)
     bi- =
two
 
polygamy = many marriages, plural marriage for either males or females(
複婚制)
   
polygyny =  the custom practiced in earlier times, in which the man has as many wives as he can afford financially and/or emotionally(
一夫多妻)
     polys =
many
    
gyne
(Greek) = woman
   
polyandry = the custom in which a woman has two or more husbands(
一妻多夫)
     andros(Greek) =
male

3. making friends with suffixes(接尾語)

①-ist : person
②-y : practices, attitudes, philosophies, etc
③-ic, -ous : adjective

  • misanthrope, misanthropist(人間嫌いの人)②misanthropymisanthropic
  • misogynist(女嫌いの人)②misogyny(hatred of women)misogynous, misogynistic
  • gynecologist(婦人科医)②gynecology(study of female ailments)gynecological
  • monogamist(一夫一婦主義者)②monogamy(system of only one marriage)③monogamous
  • bigamist(重婚者)②bigamy(unlawful state of having more than one spouse)bigamous
  • polygamist(複婚主義者)②polygamy(social custom of plural marriage)polygamous
  • polygynist(一夫多妻主義者)②polygyny(social custom of plural marriage)polygynous
  • polyandrist(一妻多夫主義者)②polyandry(social custom of plural marriage)polyandrous
  • philanthropist(博愛主義者、慈善家)②philanthropy(love of mankind)philanthropic
  • anthropologist(人類学者)②anthropologyanthropological 

4. living alone and liking it

   ascetic 【from the Greek word"asketes", monk(修道士) or hermit(隠とん者)】

   ①ascetic(禁欲主義者)②asceticism(devotion to a lonely and austere life, philosophy of living austerely)(禁欲的な)ascetic 

REVIEW OF ETYMOLOGY

①prefix, root, suffix②meaning③example

  • ego ②self, I ③egoist(利己主義者、自己中心的な人)
  • alter ②other ③alteration(変更)
  • intro- ②inside ③introvert(内向的な人)(=self analytical)
  • extro- ②outside ③extrovert(外向的な人)
  • verto ②turn ③ambivert(両向型人間)
  • ambi- ②both ③ambidextrous(両手利きの)
  • misein ②hate ③misogynist(女嫌いの人)
  • anthropos ②mankind ③anthropology(人類学)
  • gyne ②woman ③gynecologist(婦人科医)
  • gamos ②marriage ③misogamist(結婚嫌いの人)
  • asketes ②monk ③ascetic(禁欲主義者)
  • centrum ②center ③egocentric(自己中心主義者)
  • mania ②madness ③egomaniac(病的に自己中心的な人)
  • dexter ②right hand ③dexterous(器用な、巧妙な、利口な)
  • sinister ②left hand ③sinister(邪悪な、悪意のある、腹黒い)
  • gauche ②left hand ③gauche(不器用な、ぎこちない)
  • droit ②right hand ③adroit(如才ない、気の利いた)
  • monos ②one ③monogamous(一夫一婦の)
  • bi- ②two ③bigamy(重婚)
  • polys ②many ③polygamy(複婚制)
  • andros ②male ③polyandry(一妻多夫主義)
  • -ist ②person who(noun suffix) ③bigamist(重婚者)
  • -y ②practice, custom(noun suffix) ③monogamy(一夫一婦制)
  • -ous ②adjective suffix③polygynous(一夫多妻の)
  • -ity ②quality, condition(noun suffix) ③dexterity(器用さ、機敏さ、巧妙さ)

anthropocentric(人類中心の、人間中心的な)(adj.) = anthropos+kentron(center)+-ic
【例文】The reason why some people are against animal rights is that they have strong anthropocentric feelings. Anthropocentrism is the belief that humanity is the most important thing in the universe.
cf. anthropocentrism, anthropocentricity(n.)

andromania(男狂い、色気違い)(n.) = andros+mania = an obsession with males
cf. andromaniac(person) = one who is mad about men
    andromaniacal(adj.)

gynandrous(雌雄合体の) = gyne+andros
  植物、人間、両方に用いる
     gynandry(n.)
cf. androgynous = andros+gyne
 リーダーズ英和辞典によると「【医】男女両性の特徴を備えた【植】(同一花序に)雌雄両花のある;中性的な」
      
androgyny(n.)(男女両性具有、雌雄両花具有)
      
androgyne(n.)(雌雄同花)(plant) 

hermaphroditic(adj.), hermaphroditism(n.)(雌雄同体性【現象】) = Hermes(ギリシャ神話の神で”神々の使者”、ローマ神話ではMercury、かかとに羽を持つ) + Aphrodite(ギリシャ神話の愛と美の神、ローマ神話ではVenus) = gynandrous
hermaphrodite
(n.)(雌雄の両性器を備えた動物、両性個体、雌雄同花、両性花)(plant or person)

monomania(偏執狂、一つのことへの集中、熱中) = monos+mania
   monomaniac(n.)(偏執狂者) monomaniacal(adj.)

misandrist(男性を憎む人)(n.) = misein+andros
   misandry(n.)(男嫌い) misandrous(adj.)
 

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